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Texture: Mark Making and Optical Value
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Texture: Mark Making and Optical Value
Episode 26 of How to Draw

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36 episodes in this series

Episode 1 An Introduction to Drawing
Begin by considering the remarkable history of drawing, a history that has produced knowledge, methodology, and techniques that are readily learnable. Assess common misconceptions about talent and genius; discover how…
Episode 2 Drawing Materials for Line
Here, investigate drawing materials you'll use throughout the course. Learn about artists' graphite pencils, charcoal, brush and ink, and drafting and measuring tools. Then learn how to set up your…
Episode 3 Drawing Fundamentals and First Exercises
Explore essential first drawing exercises and learn how you will apply the skills developed here to much more complex subjects. Grasp how the curriculum--spanning the many pieces making up the…
Episode 4 Line and Shape: Line and Aggregate Shape
Learn about contour line, which describes the outer edges of objects, and construction line, which helps you build the objects you draw. Discover how to draw individual objects by constructing…
Episode 5 Line and Shape: Volume and Figure-Ground
Now investigate cross-contour line (which can transform flat shape into a volumetric solid), oblique or foreshortened shapes, and their relation to geometric solids--principles that allow you to make objects appear…
Episode 6 Line and Shape: Positive and Negative Shape
This lecture explores the vital concept of negative shape, the shapes existing between the positive shapes representing the objects on the page. Study how artists conceive of negative shape and…
Episode 7 Composition: The Format and Its Armature
In approaching composition, study the underlying structure of rectangles, the fundamental shape of most drawings. Learn how the character of any rectangle is defined by the relationship of its verticality…
Episode 8 Composition: How Artists Compose
Study how artists think structurally in building a drawing, tying the drawing's content to the geometric underpinnings of a given rectangular shape. Learn about focal areas, focal points, and compositional…
Episode 9 Line and Shape: Line Attributes and Gesture
Take a deeper look at the types and qualities of line, and consider how these attributes affect line's expressive potential. Study and practice nine key attributes of line, from value…
Episode 10 Composition: Shape and Advanced Strategies
Investigate visual strategies artists use in composing drawings. Grasp how shapes communicate, and how the factors of contrast and repetition affect how a viewer reads a drawing. Learn about visual…
Episode 11 Proportion: Alberti’s Velo
Now begin a study of proportion and measurement in drawing. Learn about a key discovery of 15th century European art, the velo, a gridded device that allows you to create…
Episode 12 Proportion: Accurate Proportion and Measure
Study key tools artists use to arrive at correct proportions. In particular, learn how to use an analog clock face as a way to quantify angles, how to use a…
Episode 13 Creating Volume and Illusionistic Space
Look broadly at how artists create flatness, volume, and space on two-dimensional surfaces. In doing so, study 12 factors that affect how we perceive depth of space, encompassing principles such…
Episode 14 Six Complex Drawing Projects
Apply your knowledge and skills to a number of intriguing and complex drawing conundrums. Among a range of projects, create a still life of boxes, translate a complex figure painting…
Episode 15 Linear Perspective: Introduction
Linear perspective, a Renaissance discovery that radically changed art, is another core tool for controlling proportion and creating a life-like drawing. Learn about one-point perspective, how diagonal lines recede to…
Episode 16 Linear Perspective: The Quad
Combine your knowledge of illusionistic space and linear perspective in drawing an architectural landscape of two buildings on a ground plane. Construct the buildings and the space between them using…
Episode 17 Linear Perspective: The Gridded Room
Learn how to draw a perspectival grid, and look at ways artists use grids to measure the depth of space in a drawing. Then, draw a complete gridded room, beginning…
Episode 18 Linear Perspective: Ellipses and Pattern
Apply the principles you've learned to draw curvilinear volumetric forms, such as a cylinder, cone, and sphere in perspective. Also investigate the drawing of geometric patterns in perspective. Then begin…
Episode 19 Linear Perspective: Advanced Topics
Complete drawing a believable, proportioned environment from your imagination. Next, study two-point perspective, used to accurately draw planes that are angled to the picture plane. Finally, discover how to draw…
Episode 20 Value: How Artists Use Value
In approaching value (the relative lightness or darkness of tones), grasp how the tonal palette of a drawing governs mood and the viewer's emotional response. Learn how we can conceive…
Episode 21 Value: Drawing Materials for Value
For drawing with value, take a deeper look at the types and qualities of the materials you'll use. Investigate the uses of graphite, charcoal, blending and spreading tools, ink, and…
Episode 22 Value: Black and White and a Value Scale
Discover how artists use value. With brush and ink, learn to make both white and black shapes and create a still life using only these two values. Then, draw a…
Episode 23 Value: Eight Complex Drawing Projects
Put your knowledge of value into practice, beginning with still lifes of white objects on white backgrounds drawn in a broad palette of light to dark. Learn to see a…
Episode 24 Value: Side Light and Cast Shadow
Learn how artists draw cast shadows from their imaginations. Start with shadows thrown by blocks and curvilinear solids, in one- and two-point perspective. Consider the expressive value of shadows, and…
Episode 25 Value: Oblique Light and Cast Shadow
To complete your study of cast shadows, learn to draw shadows produced by oblique light coming from both the front and rear of objects. Then investigate artificial light as it…
Episode 26 Texture: Mark Making and Optical Value
Investigate the use of mark making, such as hatching and other related techniques, as a means of creating visual texture and tonal value. Experiment with hatching and how to use…
Episode 27 Texture: How Artists Use Texture
Take a comprehensive look at texture, beginning with five master drawings that exhibit contrasting textural personalities and moods. Study the primary factors that affect texture, from the drawing surface to…
Episode 28 Color: Color Theory and Color and Light
Delve into color theory, beginning with the organization of primary and secondary colors on the color wheel. Learn about analogous and complementary colors, as well as the attributes of hue,…
Episode 29 Color: How Artists Use Color
Observe how an artist's color palette (group of chosen colors) affects light, mood, and emotion, by studying palettes used through the centuries by major artists. Learn about flat color, open…
Episode 30 Color: Color Drawing Projects
Choose palettes of pastels for your own drawings. Do a series of projects, using a specific color palette to create mood, a visual hierarchy, and the illusion of space, volume,…
Episode 31 The Figure: A Canon of Proportions
Learn to draw the human figure using a set of measures, or a canon of proportions, and simple geometric shapes. In doing so, make a study of human proportions in…
Episode 32 The Figure: The Head, Hands, and Feet
Complete drawing anterior, lateral, and posterior views of the human figure. Then, turn the flat shapes used to construct the figure into volume, to get a more naturalistic and three-dimensional…
Episode 33 The Figure: Artistic Anatomy
Like Leonardo, Michelangelo, and countless others, study human anatomy, and learn its value for drawing the figure. Study the human skeleton, with particular focus on visible skeletal landmarks seen on…
Episode 34 The Figure: Drawing Projects
Finish exploring human anatomy, covering the muscles of the lower body and limbs. Then bring your knowledge to a spectrum of drawing projects, beginning with a full-length self-portrait in three…
Episode 35 Advanced Concepts: Pictorial Space
Consider how, from pre-history through the Renaissance to the contemporary era, artists have approached the depiction of the three-dimensional world on a two-dimensional flat surface. Observe how recent artists have…
Episode 36 Advanced Drawing Projects
Conclude with challenging projects that weave together observation and imagination, as well as abstraction and representation. Explore how to develop subject matter and source material for your drawings. Locate areas…

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